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Sources Consulted

The Billy Rose Theatre Collection. The New York Public Library for the Performing Arts. [Web site] [cited May 2003]. Available from

The New York times index. Prior series. Corp Author(s): New York Times Company. 1851. New York, Bowker.

The New York Times. 1857-1905. New York: H.J. Raymond & Co. Microfilm.

Actors and Actresses of New York. 1879. Scribner's Monthly XVII (6):769-783.

The Concise dictionary of national biography : from earliest times to 1985. 1992. Oxford England ; New York: Oxford University Press.

Bank, Rosemarie K. 1997. Theatre culture in America, 1825-1860, Cambridge studies in American theatre and drama;. Cambridge ; New York: Cambridge University Press.

Bassham, Ben L. 1978. The theatrical photographs of Napoleon Sarony. Kent, Ohio: Kent State University Press.

Blum, Daniel C., John Willis, and ed. 1969. A pictorial history of the American theatre, 1860-1970. New 3d , enl. and rev. by John Willis. ed: New York, Crown Publishers.

Bordman, Gerald Martin. 1984. The Oxford companion to American theatre. New York: Oxford University Press.

Brown, John Russell. 1995. The Oxford illustrated history of theatre. Oxford ; New York: Oxford University Press.

Brown, Thomas Allston. 1870. History of the American stage : containing biographical sketches of nearly every member of the profession that has appeared on the American stage,from 1733 to 1870. New York: Dick & Fitzgerald.

Buck, Lillie West Brown. 1906. Some players; personal sketches: New York, Duffield & Co.

Burroughs, Marie. 1894. The Marie Burroughs art portfolio of stage celebrities; a collection of photographs of the leaders of dramatic and lyric art: Chicago, A.N. Marquis.

Falk, Byron A., Valerie R. Falk, and author joint. 1976. Personal name index to "The New York times index," 1851-1974. Succasunna, N.J.: Roxbury Data Interface.

Fisher, Judith Law. 1989. When they weren't doing Shakespeare : essays on nineteenth-century British and American theatre. Athens: University of Georgia Press.

Gänzl, Kurt. 1994. The encyclopedia of the musical theatre. American ed. 2 vols. Vol. 1 & 2. New York: Schirmer Books.

Grimsted, David. 1968. Melodrama unveiled; American theater and culture, 1800-1850: Chicago, University of Chicago Press.

Hanners, John Corp Author Bowling Green State University Popular Press. 1993. "It was play or starve" : acting in the nineteenth-century American popular theatre, Entertainment and leisure studies;. Bowling Green, Ohio: Bowling Green State University Popular Press.

Hutton, Laurence. 1890. The American Burlesque. Harper's New Monthly Magazine LXXXI (481):59-74.

Johnson, Claudia D. 1984. American actress : perspective on the nineteenth century. Chicago: Nelson-Hall.

Leggat, Robert. 2003. A history of photography from its beginnings till the 1920s [Web site] [cited May 2003]. Available from

Londré, Felicia Hardison. 1998. The history of North American theater : the United States, Canada, and Mexico, from pre-Columbian times to the present. New York: Continuum.

McConachie, Bruce A. 1992. Melodramatic formations : American theatre and society, 1820-1870. 1st ed, Studies in theatre history and culture;. Iowa City: University of Iowa Press.

Nagler, A. M. 1952. Sources of theatrical history: New York.

Nolan, Paul T. comp. 1967. Provincial drama in America, 1870-1916; a casebook of primary materials: Metuchen, N.J., Scarecrow Press.

Ottenberg, June C. 1994. Opera odyssey : toward a history of opera in nineteenth-century America, Contributions to the study of music and dance,; no. 32;. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press.

Preston, Katherine K. 1993. Opera on the road : traveling opera troupes in the United States, 1825-60, Music in American life;. Urbana: University of Illinois Press.

Reitz Mullenix, Elizabeth. 2000. Wearing the breeches : gender on the antebellum stage. 1st ed. New York: St. Martin's Press.

Rigdon, Walter, encyclopaedia Biographical, and theatre who's who of the American. 1976.

Notable names in the American theatre. New and rev. ed. Clifton, N.J.: J. T. White.

Rodney Higginbotham, Associate Professor, Speech and Performing Arts, Northeastern Illinois University. Theatre Ephemera. [Web site] [cited May 2003]. Available from

Root, Deane L. 1981. American popular stage music, 1860-1880, Studies in musicology; [no. 44];. Ann Arbor, Mich.: UMI Research Press.

Sharp, Harold S. comp, Marjorie Z. Sharp, and comp joint. 1966. Index to characters in the performing arts. 4 vols. Vol. Part I, Vol. 1 & 2; Part II, Vol. 2: New York, Scarecrow Press.

Strang, Lewis Clinton. 1903. Players and plays of the last quarter century; an historical summary of causes and a critical review of conditions as existing in the American theatre at the close of the nineteenth century. Vol. 1 The theatre of yesterday: Boston, L. C. Page & Company.

Turner, Mary M. 1990. Forgotten leading ladies of the American theatre : lives of eight female players, playwrights, directors, managers, and activists of the eighteenth, nineteenth, and early twentieth centuries. Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland.

Wearing, J. P. 1979. American and British theatrical biography : a directory. Metuchen, N.J.: Scarecrow Press.

Wells, Stanley W. 1978. Nineteenth-century Shakespeare burlesques. 1st American ed. Vol. 5. Wilmington, Del.: M. Glazier.

Wilson, James Grant, ed, John Fiske, and ed joint. 1887. Appleton's cyclopædia of American biography: New York, D. Appleton and Company.

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