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Leptaena rhomboidalis (Silurian)
A, External view of ventral valve.
B, Interior of ventral valve; a, occlusor scars; d, pseudo-deltidium; d,f, divaricator scars; c,a, hinge are; t, teeth
C, Interior of dorsal valve: a.a, anterior occlusor scars; p.a, posterior occlusor scars; c.a, hinge area; c.p, cardinal process; d, chilidium; s, dental sockets; v.s, vascular sinuses
Productus giganteus. Carboniferous Limestone.
A, Interior of dorsal valve.
B, Interior of ventral valve.
C, Transverse section of valves.
D, Hinge line of A:
a, occlusor scars; d, divaricator scars; i, "reniform impressions"; ca, cardinal process; h, hinge line; p, brachial prominence; s, cavity for spiral arms; do, dorsal valve; ve, ventral valve
Anatomy of the Oyster.
--From a model in the American Museum of Natural History. The right valve and mantle have been removed to thow the internal organs. The oyster may roughly be likened to a book, the valves of the shell representing the cover, the fleshy mantle closely lining the shell the first and last leaves, and the gills, running lengthwise beneath the large adductor muscle, the inner pages. Between the muscle and the hinge lies the heart, and above the gills the visceral mass, consisting of the cream-colored reproductive organs, whish are here pictured as round white masses, and the dark-colored digestive organs. Between the anterior end of the gills and the hinge are the palps, four fleshy flaps, similar in appearance to the gills. The microscopic plants which form the food of the oyster, are filtered out by the hairlike cilia of the gills, transferred to the palps, and passed into the mouth. A short esophagus leads into the stomach, which is surrounded by a dark-green gl
Left valve of Unio rectus ... Inside view. ...Extremely irregular mass of righ purplish nacreous matter, with many protuberances, lying between the hinge and the interior abudctor impression, and partly occupying the space of the latter. The shell is almost entirely white. The pearly pertuberances at the right of the hinge are of a rich purple color. The shell is pure white
Right toothed forceps and cheliped of female lobster from lower side, showing periodic teeth, carpal ridge of lower lock hinge, represented as if seen through hinge-process (l.h.p.), breaking joint (x0 and interlock (s i and s 3) between first and third podomeres. This claw is locked when closed by means of the underlapping lock spine (lock sp) and underlapping tip of dactyl, indicated by arrow (Fig.1). Left cracker claw and cheliped of female from above, showing crushing turbecles, serial displaced teeth on margen of "hand" (up. ser. and l. ser.), carpal groove of upper lock hinge (u h groove), absorption area of fourth segment (Abs. a.), breaking plane (at x), reversed basal hinges, or inner ball (h ball), and outer cup (h socket); tendons (t.f. 1 and t.ex.I) of first joint, podobranchia (phr), gill separator (ep>) and proximal spur (ps) of clas (Fig.2). Base of great cheliped from below, disarticulated at secopnd joint to show interlocking mechanism of spines (s1 and s3) of first and third posomers. (Figs. 3 and 4)
Cle Elum Ranger residence interior showing detail of hinge on hallway built-in cabinet, September 1, 2005
Fig.1, Hinge or anterior umbonal end of the left valve of an adult oyster
Fig.2, Drawn from a dissection of a hardened specimen
Fig.3, Viscera of the oyster
Fig.4, Section or slice cut from the soft parts of an oyster
Hinge in Arcadae: A, Nucula Loringi Aug.; B, Area granosa L.
Hinge of A, right valve, and B, left valve of Mulinia edulis King
Ephippodonta macdougalii Tate, S.Australia
A,burrow of prawn, the x indicating the position of the mollusc; sp, sponge
B, Ventral view of Ephippodonta; by, byssus; f, foot; m, mantle; mm, fused mantle borders
C, View of interior of shells; h, hinge; h'h', abductor muscles
Fig.1--Leftsecond periopod from anterior or upper side, partly dissected to show the relations of muscles and tendons in the principal segments; hinges (h) and nerves (n1 and n2) are indicated; and exterior and flexor muscles (ex, fl) are numbered to correspond to segments of origin. Fig.2--Shell of right toothed forceps in sectional view from above, the show tendons crossing distal joints. s h, lower sliding hinge, form inside; mb, interarticular membrane (dotted line marking position of former tendon pocket)
Scallops: Changes in form of shell. A series of drawings illustrating the changes from the early veliger (the first shell), which is 1/10 of a millimeter in size, to a 2-millimeter scallop. Note (a) change from flat-hinged veliger (1) to the prodissoconch (2), with prominent umbones; (b) return to a straight hinge (3), witdth greater than height; (c) width and height become equal (8); (d) formation of 'ears' (10)
Scallops: Early plicated stage. View of the right or lower valve. Note the smooth prodissoconch (pd) and siccoconch (d) areas, with the beginning of the sixteen plications (pl) of the adult. There are four teeth (te) on the byssal notch. (33); Scallop...viewed from left or upper valve (34); View of the anatomy of a slightly older scallop...as seen through the right valve. Note primary, secondary and tertiary eyes (e) and tentacles (t). The outer gill (og) has about twenty-five filaments, and begins to resemble the inner gill (ig) (35); View of right or lower valve of same scallop.... Note the five teeth (te) on the byssal notch (bn) and the beginning of the "ears (er). the two teeth back of the external border of the byssal groove are older, and have rounded rather than the pointed ends of the last formed teeth. The valves have become nearly equal, the hinge line straight, and the byssal groove (bg) can be traced back to the asymmetrical prodissoconch (36); View of upper left.... (37)
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