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Gulf of Buccari, Porto Re
Gulf Stream : This shows the line where the blue water meets the green water. The vapor is rising from the Gulf Stream
Glacier in Gulf of Penas
Franklin's Map of the Gulf Stream Made from a Whaleman's Sketch
Current of the Gulf Stream
Diagram of the Tormare in the Quarnero
showing their situations, the number and value of nets; the number of fishermen employed
Pacific Gulf Yupik Eskimo artifacts from Kodiak Island, Alaska, in engraving made ca. 1805
Macray, a diesel powered fishing boat, wrecked, its pilot house above sand in the Gulf of Alaska, 1938
Macray, a diesel powered fishing boat, wrecked, view of deck toward bow in sand in the Gulf of Alaska, 1938
17- Paralichthys albiguttus, Individual (B) on black background (1 sq. cm. circles) from August 1, 4:30 p.m. to August 2, 11 a.m. Probably not fully adapted; 18- P. albiguttus (E) 10 cm long, on black and white background (1 sq. cm. circles.... On this background the specimen was nearly uniformly gray much of the time, and the simulation of the figures in this background was at not time as good as it was in larger specimens, although on the finer-grained backgrounds it was quite good, showing that the maximum area of figures successfully simulated depends upon the size of the fish. 19-, P.Albiguttus, individual (C) 14 cm. long on black and white background (1 cm. squares..... 20- P.albiguttus (E) 10 cm long, on black and white background (5 mm squares)....
23- Paralichthys albiguttus, Individual (B) on black and white background (5 by 10 mm. rectangular), long axis of the fish parallel with short axis of rectangles... 24- Individual (B) on same background, long axis of fish continuously parallel with long axis of rectangles. 25- Individual (B) on the same background continuously rotated on a disk under the crystallizing dish.... 26- Individual (B) on black and white background (1 sq. cm. circles, area of white equal to that of black).....
9- Paralichthys albiguttus, 14 cm. long, individual (B), on black and white background (2 mm. squares) from July 29, 11 a.m. to July 30, 3 p.m., after having been adapted to the background shown in figure 10. This indiviidual was extensively used in the study of adaption on artificial backgrounds. It is represented in many....figures. Note that numerous dark spots have appeared in the light areas shown in figure 10, and that the light spots in the dark areas have become more numerous and more conspicuous. 10- Individual (B) on black and white backgroune (5 mm. squares) from July 25, 2 p.m. to jUly 26, 11:30 a.m., after having been adapted to a white background. Note that the three very light gray areas around the ocelli...have become much darker and other dark spots have appeared. 11-Individual (B) on black and white backgroune (2 cm. squares) from August 1, 9 a.m., to 4:30 p.m., after having been adapted to 1 cm. squares, shown in figure 12. Note that the pattern has changed very little.12-Individual (B) opn black and white backgroune (1 cm. squares) from July 31, 11:40 a.m., to August 1, 9 a.m., after having been on (1 sq. cm. circles) from July 30, 3 p.m.., to July 31, 11:40 a.m. Note that the dark areas are darker than in figure 10.
1-Paralichthys albiguttus, 20 com. long, on fine variegated shells, yellow predominating partly buried as usually found in nature. 2-Paralichthys albiguttus, same individual two minutes later with the shells removed. 3- Paralichthys albiguttus, w1 cm long, on coarse shells of the same kind, partly buried, from August 16 to 19. 4-Same individual two minutes later with shells removed. Note that the pattern is much coarser than in figure 2 on the fine shells. In both the skin was distinctly yellowish in color.
13-Paralichthys albiguttus, Individual (B) on a smooth white background continuously from July 23, 2 p.m., to July 25, 10 a.m. It was alternately on white and on black about equal time during the preceding seven days. The skin actually appeared much whiter and less mottled and the animal less conspicuous than the photograph indicates. This is partly due to the shadow in the background along the ventral side. In specimens kept continuously on white for two months the skin became much more uniformly white. 14- Individual (B) on black and white background (circles 5 mm. in diameter) from August 11, 12 m., to August 13, 1:30 p.m... 15- Individual (B) on black and white background 2 cm. squares from August 24, 11 a.m., to August 27, a.m., after having been adapted to white... 16- Individual (B) on black and white background (circles 5 mm. in diameter) from August 15, 10 a.,m., to August 16, 9 a.m. This photograph shows one of the most remarkable concealing patterns observed. The fish appeared to contain numerous holes.
5-Paralichthys albiguttus, on very fine gray sand, almost entirely covered with sand, from August 19 to 21. Note the two small depressions in the sand at the base of the caudal fin. The lower one is much more prominent than the other. This individual breathed only through the lower gill. The water which entered the mouth passed back under the body and oozed up through the sand, forming the depressions. The animal was very effectively concealed. 6-Same individual uncovered.... 7- Paralichthys, 13 cm. long, in a glass dish over very fine black sand. Note the remarkable similarity between the pattern and the shade in the fish, especially the central part of the body, and those of the sand. The tips of the fins and the tail have no pigment and consequently stand out boldly against the background. 8- Paralichthys albiguttus, 16 and 10 cm long, on a smooth jet black background. Note the conspicuous white spots. In some instances all of these, except a trace of the one at the base of the pectoral fin, disappeared entirely
48- Paralichthys albiguttus, 12 cm long, fully adapted to a very light gray background. This specimen continuously appeared somewhat darker than the background. Note that the three ocelli have almost entirely disappeared. 49- Individual (B)..., on black and white background (dots 0.5 mm. in diameter).... Dots of this size, no matter how numerous, had no effect except perhaps to cause the skin to become uniformly slightly grayer. 50- Individual (B) on black and white background (dots 1 mm in diameter)...after having been fully adapted to 1 cm. squares. These spots have no appreciable effect on the skin unless they are more numerous than they are in this background. 51- Individual (B) on black and white background (dots 1 mm. in diameter)....after having been fully adapted to dots 2 mm. in diameter. Note that the posterior ocellus is much darker than on white, but that the two anterior ones are not....
21- Paralichthys albiguttus, 16 cm long, in shallow bluish-gray mottled granite pan.... Excellend simulation of the background on the entire surface except the three ocelli, which are nearly black. 22- Same specimen photographed in the granite pan....very shortly after mechanical stimulation. Note the contrast due to the enlargement of the regions around the ocelli and the appearance of numerous dark and light spots. These regions and spots were considerably more pronounced immediately after stimulation. They become less conspicuous rapidly but it usually requires several minutes for them to disappear completely. They usually also appear when the animal is feeding.
Paralichthys albiguttus, individual (B) on black and white background (dots 3 mm. in diameter).... 53- Individual (B), on black and white background (dots 3 mm. in diameter).... -54 Individual (B), on black and white background (dots 2 mm. in diameter)....after having been fully adapted to white. 55- Individual (B), on black and white background (dots 5 mm. in diameter).....
Paralichthys albiguttus; Photographs taken with orthomon plates of specimens adapted to colored backgrounds. 68-Brown; 69-Dark blue; 70-Maroon; 71-Green; 72-Vermilion; 73-Light blue; 74-Dark blue; 75-Green; 76-Chrome yellow. Note the remarkable simulation of the background in shade and the absence of conspicuous patterns... The conspicuous dark areas and light spots shown in figure 70 were present only after abnormal stimulation.
Paralichthys. Group of Paralichthys on a white background containing considerable debris scattered over it. All of the specimens are albiguttus except the large one above and to the left, which is dentalus. Note that this specimen has five dark areas, two rather inconspicuous ones near the head and three near the posterior end. In some specimens there are several others nearly as conspicuous as these. In albiguttus there are but three, the two near the posterior end of the base of the fin being absent. The difference in shade in the different individuals is largely due to difference in their past experience
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