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A, Inner survace of pedicle-valve or ventral valve.
B, Brachial plate.
Muscle-scars of Lingula anatina. Inner survace of A, Pedicle-valve or ventral valve. B, Brachial or dorsal valve.
Figures illustrating the tubes in which Lingula anatifera lives. The upper figure is a view of the trilobed opening of the tube. The lower figure shows the tube in the sand laid open and the animal exposed. The dotted line indicates the position of the body when retrcted. The darker portion is the tube of sand agglutinated by the secretion of the stalk.
Stages in the development of the larva of Terebratulina septentrionalis...
The youngest larva has two segments, a third then appears, the larva then fixes itself, and the second segment folds over the first and develops bristles round its edge.
Full-grown larva of Cistella neapolitiana with umbrella-shaped head, ciliated.
Young larva of Cistella neapolitiana showing three segments, two eye spots, and two bundles of setae
Brood-pouch of Thecidium mediterraneum. Part of the wall of the pouch has been removed to show the clusters of larvae.
1. Mouth, overhung by lip.
2. One of the two median tentacles which are enlarged and modified to bear the larvae.
3. Wall of brood-pouch into which the median tentacles are folded.
4. Larva attached to the swollen end of the tentacles.
Semi-diagrammatic figure of the muscular system of Crania (after Blochmann):
a, anterior occlusor; b, posterior occlusor; c, superior oblique; d, inferior oblque; e, retractor of the arms; f, elevator of the arms; g, protractor of the arms; h, unpaired median muscle. The dorsal valve is uppermost
View of the inner side of a valve of Lingula anatifera (after Frascois), to show the definite arrangement of the channels in the mantle:
a, position of mouth; b, position of anus
View of the left half of cistella (Argiope) neapolitiana, which has been cut in two by a median longitudinal incision, to show the disposition of the organs. Partly diagrammatic. The inorganic part of the shell only is shown. The tubular extensions of the mantle ad the organic outer layer are not indicated, and hence the pores appear open.
1. The ventral valve.
2. The dorsal valve.
e. The stalk.
4. The mouth.
5. Lip which overhangs the mouth and runs all round the tentacular arms.
7. Ovary in dorsal valve.
8. Liver diverticula.
9. Occlusor muscle; its double origin is snown.
10. Internal opening of left nephridium.
11. External opening of left nephridium.
12. Ventral adjustor. The line from 10 crosses the dorsal adjustor.
13. Divaricator muscle.
Three specimens of Crania anomala on a stone dredged in Loch Fyne. The topmost specimen is seen in profile
Four specimens of Terebratulina caput serpentis, attached to a waterlogged piece of wood, from the Clyde area
Myochama stutchburyi A. Ad., attached to Circe undatina Lam., Moreton Bay
Teredo navalis L.:
V, valves of shell; T, tube; P, pallets; SS, siphons
Requienia ammonea Goldf., Neocomiam (A)
Hippurites cornu-vaccinum Goldf., Cretaceous.
a, right valve; f, point of fixture
Cardium (Hemicardium) cardissa L., East Indies
Cytherea dione Lam., Peru
Tellina rastellum Hanl., East Indies
Isocardia vulgaris Reeve, China
Spondylus petroselinum Sowb., Mauritius; on a coral
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