Indiae Orientalis, Insularuimque Adiacientium Typus
|Title||Indiae Orientalis, Insularuimque Adiacientium Typus |
|Detailed view (zoom)||http://content.lib.washington.edu/mapsweb/images/Viewer/G7400_1570_O67.html |
|Cartographer||Ortelius, Abraham, 1527-1598|
|Century Published||16th century|
|Publication Date||1570 |
|Publisher||Plantin, Christophe ca. 1520-1589|
|Place of Publication||Belgium--Antwerp |
|Original Source||"Theatrum Orbis Terrarum." Ortelius, Abraham. Antwerp: Christophe Plantin, 1579 |
|Descriptive Notes||Copper engraving handcolored with watercolor.|
Relief shown pictorially.
Printed in cartouche in lower left corner:
"Indiae Orientalis, Insularuimque Adiacientium Typus."
Contains a watermark of crossed arrows on right.
Printed in India around a coat of arms in upper left corner:
"Persiae siue Sophorum Imperii limites ad Indum fluuium usque pertingunt."
Written in pencil beneath border at bottom:
Printed in a yellow banner on right in "Oceanus Orientalis":
"Insule Molucce célebres ob maxima aromatum copiam, quam per totum terraru orbem transferunt, 5. Sunt, iuxta Gilolo nempe, Tarenate, Tidore, Motir, Machia et Bachia."
Printed in Australia at bottom edge:
"Beach, pars continentis australis."
Directions printed in Latin in border of map including "Septentrio" in top border, "Occidens" in left border, "Meridies" in bottom border, and "Oriens" in right border.
Printed in land in lower right corner:
"Nova Guinea quam Andreas Corsalus Terram Piccinaculi appellare videtur. An insula sit, an pars continentis Australis incertum est."
Printed beneath inscription in "Nova Guinea":
Description of India printed on verso:
"Nobilissimam totius Orbis terrarium partem Indiam esse, neq. Maiorem regionem uno nomine…."
Printed at bottom of description of Indian on verso indicating map number:
Written in brown ink alongside description of India on verso:
"deusillovu, " and "amispara disaro."
Some words in the description of India printed on verso underlined in brown ink including "triplici capite effigiatum" and "de situ Indiae."
Depicts southeast Asia including India, China, the Bay of Bengal, the Himalaya Mountains, the Canton River, Thailand, Taiwan, Cambodia, Sri Lanka, Malaysia (Malaca) Japan and Indonesia. Also shows part of northern Australia, New Guinea, and part of northwest North America. Of note, India is depicted as much larger than China and Korea has been omitted from the map. Borneo is shown as much longer than its actual size. The mythical Lake Chiang Mai is labeled as "Chyamai Lacus" with the Aua, Catpumo and Henan Rivers flowing from it. Shows the Ganges River as the Chaberis River. The island labeled "Zamal" seems to be modern-day Guam and the Marianas are labeled as "Restinga de ladrones." An island of the Philippines is labeled as "Humunu vel ya di buoni segni" or "Humunu, actually known as the island of good signals." The Pacific Ocean is labeled "Oceanus Orientalis." Includes a coat of arms in upper left corner and a decorative border around the title cartouche. Also contains various illustrations including a ship next to the title cartouche and in the upper right, two mermaids, a whale with two blowholes attacking a ship, and a sea monster. Scale: c.a. 1:21, 000, 000.
[East 60 degrees—East 150 degrees / North 45 degrees – South 5 degrees].
|Contextual Notes||Abraham Ortelius (1527-1598) was a cartographer and publisher. He set up a business as a book dealer and map painter in Antwerp. He traveled a great deal, making his business successful by developing a large network of contacts around Europe. In 1564 he published a world map in eight sheets, marking the start of a long career in map publishing (Moreland and Bannister, 98). In 1570, Ortelius published the "first modern uniform atlas" the "Theatrum Orbis Terrarum" (1570) (Tooley, 476). Having combined a large collection of maps from various European cartographers, he had them engraved to a standard size (Moreland and Bannister, 98). He also commissioned Frans Hogenberg to create cartouches and illustrations for these maps, following the popular style of the Flemish Renaissance (Klemp, map 15). Multiple editions of this highly successful and influential atlas were published in many languages up to 1612. Of note, Ortelius credited other cartographers. Ortelius's other works include: "Egypt" (1565), "Asia" (1567), "Spain" (1570) and "Roman Empire" (1571) (Tooley, 476).|
This particular map was first printed in Ortelius's "Theatrum Orbis Terrarum" in 1570 and published in Plantinum's edition of Orteliu's "Theatrum Orbis Terrarum" in 1579 (Koeman, 44-45). Ortelius generally followed the work of Mercator's 1569 map of the region with some differences, leading to a map full of accurate depictions and inaccuracies. For instance, Ortelius is one of the first cartographers to map modern-day Taiwan with the label "Formosa" and he also labels the Ryukyu chain as Lequiho. As a "twist" to his mapping of the mythical Lake Chiang Mai, Ortelius adds the kingdom of Toleman next to the lake as a derivation of Marco Polo's accounts. Following the model of Italian cartographers, Ortelius shows Borneo incorrectly as quite "elongated." Though he labels the Canton River correctly, he calls the Ganges River the Chaberis River. He shows Halmahera (Gilolo) as "having 4 arms" towards the east. The map also includes a form of Irian Jaya visible as "Cainan" island. However, Ortelius also shows Guam as "Samar" in the open Pacific Ocean and the Marianas as "Restinga de ladrones." Unlike Mercator, Ortelius shows the eastern "bulge" of Indochina and the Gulf of Tongkin but his shores are "flattened" (Suárez, 165-9).
Maps of southeast Asia during this period were generally based on explorers' accounts and maps as well as cartographic speculation from the early and mid-sixteenth century. For instance, reports of modern-day Taiwan repeatedly appeared in sailors' accounts as a site of shipwrecks. The legendary Lake Chiang Mai frequently appears in China as the source of several major rivers. An incorrect interpretation of Marco Polo's explorations led to a confusion of Micronesia and the Philippines. The illustrations of mermaids with mirrors may refer to a legend of an island of women "who conceived by beholding their own image" (Suárez, 165-9).
Source(s): Koeman, Cornelius, ed. "Alantes Neerlandici: Bibliography of Terrestrial, Maritime, and Celestial Books, Atlases and Pilot Books Published in the Netherlands up to 1880. Volume 3." Amsterdam: Theatrum Orbis Terrarum Ltd., 1970.
Moreland, Carl and David Bannister. "Antique Maps: A Collector's Handbook." New York: Longman Group, Ltd., 1983.
Suárez, Thomas. "Early Mapping of Southeast Asia." Singapore: Periplus Editions (HK) Ltd., 1999.
Tooley, Ronald Vere. "Tooley's Dictionary of Mapmakers." Hertfordshire: Map Collector Publications Limited, 1979.
|Location Depicted||Asia, Southeast|
|Subjects (LCSH)||Orient-Maps-Early works to 1800. |
|Digital Collection||World and Regional Maps, 16th to the 19th centuries|
|Digital ID Number||MAP114 |
|Ordering Information||For information about digital reproductions, please email firstname.lastname@example.org. Please cite the Digital ID number. |
|Repository||University of Washington Libraries. Special Collections Division.|
|Repository Collection||Rare Map Collection. G7400 1570 O67 |
|Physical Description||33 x 48 cm. |
|Condition||Dark stains along centerfold. Written in pencil beneath bottom border: "R-NX-24." Has binder's guard. Call number written in pencil on verso on left edge. Tape repair in upper right and left along top edge. Written in pencil on verso: "150 Realen." |
|Digital Reproduction Information||Scanned from original map at 600 dpi in TIFF format, resized and enhanced at 400 ppi using Adobe Photoshop, and imported as JPEG2000 using ContentDM's software JPEG2000 Extension. 2008. |
|Acquisition||The Janice Ruth Johnson Memorial Map Collection donated by Professor W. Vance Johnson, Ellensburg, Wash., 1990. |
|References||Koeman, v.3, 44-45. |