Bowles's New Pocket map of the Discoveries made by the Russians on the NorthWest coast of America Published by the Royal Academy of Sciences at Petersburg
|Title||Bowles's New Pocket map of the Discoveries made by the Russians on the NorthWest coast of America Published by the Royal Academy of Sciences at Petersburg |
|Alternative Title||New Pocket Map of the Discoveries made by the Russians on the NorthWest coast of America map |
|Detailed view (zoom)||http://content.lib.washington.edu/mapsweb/images/Viewer/G4370_1780_I4.html |
|Cartographer||Imperatorskaia akademiia nauk (Russia)|
Miller, Gerard Fridrikh 1705-1783
Jefferys, Thomas d. 1771
Bowles, Carrington, 1724-1793
|Explorer||Bering, Vitus Jonassen, 1681-1741|
Chirikov, Aleksei Il'ich, 1703-1748
|Century Published||18th century|
|Publication Date||1780 |
|Publisher||Bowles, Carrington 1724-1793|
Imperatorskaia akademiia nauk (Russia)
|Place of Publication||England--London |
|Original Source||"New Pocket Map of the Discoveries, etc." Jefferys, Thomas. London: Carrington Bowles, 1780. |
|Descriptive Notes||Copper engraving handcolored with watercolor.|
Relief shown pictorially.
Printed at top of map in center:
"Bowles's New Pocket Map of the Discoveries made by the Russians on the NorthWest Coast of America Published by the Royal Academy of Sciences at Petersburg. Printed for the Proprietor Carington Bowles, No. 69 in St. Pauls Church Yard, London."
Printed in lower right corner is a scale comparing Sea Leagues, British Statute Miles and Degrees.
Printed in lower right corner is a key translating Russian words into English:
"Explanation of the Russian names.
Nos. The same as Ness or Promontory. Nifchnoe. Lower. Wwerchnoe. Upper. Ozero. Lake. Ostrow. Island. Ostrog. Village surrounded with Palissadoes. Neka. River. Sim. Winter settlemt. To receive the Tributes. Track of Capt. Bering and his companions. Track of ye Cossack Schestakows and Captain Pawlutzki. Along the Rivers signifies going by Water."
Printed in the north above Russia and North America:
"Siewernoi Okian Northern or Frozen Ocean."
Printed along bottom edge:
"Great South Sea or Pacific Ocean."
Printed above Mt. St. John:
"LAND indicated by the inhabitants of Kamtschatka, which according to some navigators may be seen from Bering's Isle."
Depicts Russia, northern China as "Chinese Tartary, " part of Japan, modern-day Alaska and northwestern regions of North America. Shows part of Baffin's Bay, Hudson's Bay, northern California as "New Albion, " the Bering Strait as the "Straits of Anian of the Ancient Geographers" and the "Sea of Ochozk Called Lama by the Tung." Shows the routes of Captain Bering and Captain Chirkow (Tschirikow) as they explored the Aleutian Islands and Alaskan coast. Shows several coasts where Bering and Chirikow landed. Includes notes about other areas found by Gwosdew in 1730, the site in Japan where Captain Spangberg landed in 1739, an entrance to a strait found by Juan de Fuca in 1592, and an entrance found by Martin d'Aguilar in 1603. Depicts the River of the West running from Lake Winnipigon to the Pacific Ocean.
Prime Meridian: Isle de Ferro.
Scale: c.a. 1:38, 000, 000.
[2 5/16 inch equal] 160 Sea leagues, 20 to a degree
[2 7/16 inch equal] 600 British Statute miles, 69 ½ to a degree.
[East 72 degrees-West 60 degrees/North 80 degrees-North 40 degrees].
|Contextual Notes||Gerhard Friedrich Muller was a German scientist and a member of the Second Kamchatka Expedition led by Russian captains and explorers, Vitus Bering and Aleksei Chirikov in 1741. Hayes writes that Muller created this map in 1754 based on the information he had from Bering's and Chirikov's expeditions (Hayes, 104). Goss too, writes that Muller was the map's original creator, quoting Muller as stating that in this map he intended only to "connect together, according to probability, the coasts that had been separated in various places" (Goss, 142). Portinaro and Knirsch, however, write that the original author of the 1754 map is unknown and that Muller merely published the map in 1758 as "Nouvelle Carte des Descouvertes Faites par des Vaissaux Russes." Whether or not Muller was the original creator or first publisher (or both), the map became one of the best-known works representing the Alaska coastline and the northwest coast of North America, including the River of the West linking Lake Winnipeg to the Pacific Ocean (Goss, 142; Hayes, 104; Tooley, 453; Wagner, 343, entry 650; Wagner, 337, entry 596; Wheat 224, no. 164). Unfortunately, the map does not accurately depict the coastline or the Aleutian Islands. Rather, it seems that Muller was a bit confused by the Aleutian Islands chain, resulting in a drawing of the mainland peninsula of America "jutting hundreds of miles into the North Pacific" (Hayes, 104). Muller's map was copied and republished by many other publishers and cartographers. This particular iteration of the map was created by Thomas Jefferys in 1761. It was published in his work, "Voyages." Carrington Bowles republished the map in his "New pocket map of the discoveries" (1780).|
Alaska was first discovered and mapped by Russian explorers in the eighteenth century. Peter the Great sent out his Danish captain, Vitus Bering in 1728. Bering left from Kamchatka Peninsula and heading east but had little luck in finding land in America. In 1732, Mikhail Gvozdev saw the eastern coast of the Diomede Islands in what is now modern-day Bering Strait, prompting more exploration. In spring of 1741, the Second Kamchatka Expedition began in which Bering was able to explore the Aleutian Islands. During this expedition, Bering and his fellow commander, Aleksei Chirikov (or Tschirikov), attempted to explored the northwest coast of Alaska. Chirikov had little luck, however, landing at Baker Island and coasting north towards Baranof Island. After an exploration boat from his voyage did not return, he decided to return to Kamchatka. Bering's voyage went worse. He was able to explore a little further south and land at Kayak Island during which time the major naturalist and scientist, Georg Steller, hurriedly conducted research on the island. On his return to Kamchatka, Bering wrecked on what is now modern-day Bering Island and died during the crew's stay on the island. After nearly a year, the remaining crew was able to build a ship from the wreckage of the first ship and sail back to Kamchatka, arriving in September of 1742 (Hayes, 102-5).
Carrington Bowles (1724-93) was a printer and publisher in London. His works include "Britania Depicta" (1764), Evans' "middle British Colonies" (1765), "The Large English Atlas" (1785), "New Medium English Atlas" (1785), "America" [4 sheets] (1790) and "Universal Atlas" (1792). He was succeeded by Bowles and Carver.
Goss, John. "The Mapping of North America: Three Centuries of Map-making 1600-1860." London: Wellfleet Press, 1990.
Hayes, Derek. "America Discovered: A Historical Atlas of North American Exploration. Vancouver: Douglas and McIntyre, 2004.
Portinaro, Pierluigi and Franco Knirsch. "The Cartography of North America 1500-1800." New York: Facts on File, Inc., 1987.
Tooley, Ronald Vere. "Tooley's Dictionary of Mapmakers." Hertfordshire: Map Collector Publications Limited, 1979.
Wagner, Henry R. "The Cartography of the Northwest Coast of America to the year 1800 Volume 2." Berkeley: University of California Press, 1937.
Wheat, Carl I. "Mapping the Transmississippi West." Volume 1. San Francisco: Institute of Historical Cartography, 1957.
Exploration and Discovery
|Location Depicted||Pacific Ocean|
United States, Northwest
|Subjects (LCSH)||Alaska-Maps-Early works to 1800.; Bering Sea-Maps-Early works to 1800.; Siberia (Russia)-Maps-Early works to 1800.; North Pacific Ocean-Maps-Early works to 1800.; Bering, Vitus Jonassen 1681-1741--Travel. |
|Digital Collection||World and Regional Maps, 16th to the 19th centuries|
|Digital ID Number||MAP107 |
|Ordering Information||For information about digital reproductions, please email firstname.lastname@example.org. Please cite the Digital ID number. |
|Repository||University of Washington Libraries. Special Collections Division.|
|Repository Collection||Rare Map Collection. G4370 1780 I4 |
|Physical Description||45 x 60 cm. |
|Condition||Light browning on left edge. Original call number written in ink in lower left corner. Blue ink stamp on bottom edge: "Library University of Washington Seattle." Acquisition information written in pencil on left edge. Some colored ink has bled through to verso. Original call number written in pencil on lower left corner on verso. Call number written in pencil on left edge on verso. Blue ink stamp in upper right corner on verso: "Library University of Washington Seattle." |
|Digital Reproduction Information||Scanned from original map at 600 dpi in TIFF format, resized and enhanced at 400 ppi using Adobe Photoshop, and imported as JPEG2000 using ContentDM's software JPEG2000 Extension. 2008. |
|Acquisition||Written in pencil on left edge: [illegible]. H. Stevens. Central-S.C. 1/0/a |
|References||Wagner, 337, entry 597. |