|Title||Nova Virginiae Tabula |
|Detailed view (zoom)||http://content.lib.washington.edu/mapsweb/images/Viewer/G3880_1630_N8.html |
|Cartographer||Hondius, Jodocus, 1594 or 1595-1629|
Blaeu, Willem Janszoon, 1571-1638
Smith, John 1580-1631
|Explorer||Smith, John, 1580-1631|
|Engraver||Grijp, D. (Dirck)|
|Century Published||17th century|
|Publication Date||1630 |
|Publisher||Blaeu, Willem Janszoon 1571-1638|
Blaeu, Joan 1596-1673
|Place of Publication||Netherlands--Amsterdam |
|Original Source||"Theatrum Orbis Terrarum sive Atlas Novus." French. Blaeu, Willem Janszoon. Amsterdam: Joan Blaeu, 1640. |
|Descriptive Notes||Copper engraving.|
Relief shown pictorially.
Printed in title cartouche in center of top edge:
"Nova Virginiae Tabula."
Longitude not shown.
Oriented with North on the right edge.
Printed in cartouche in upper right corner is a key explaining the symbols used throughout the map for different domains including those marked as dwelling of the king, dwelling of the common people and areas brought to light by the English:
"Notarum explication. Domus Regnum. Ordinaire Domus. Lucubrationes Anglorum."
Printed in the center of the bottom edge is a scale for German miles:
"Miliaria Germanica communia 15 pro Uno gradu."
Printed in center of cartouche on bottom edge:
"Ex officinal Guiljelmi Blaeuw."
Printed in bottom of cartouche on bottom edge:
Printed beneath an illustration of Chief Powhatan and Pochontas during the capture of John Smith in his home surrounded by members of his tribe:
"Statvs Regis Powhatan quando prefectus Smith Captivius illi daretur."
Printed in the lower left corner of the map:
Printed within the center of the top border:
Printed within the center of the right border:
Printed within the center of the bottom border:
Printed within the center of the left border:
Printed next to an illustration of a standing native American on right side:
"Habitus foeminarum in Provincia Sasqueshanoughs."
Depicts the Chesapeake Bay, modern-day Maryland and part of modern-day Virginia. Also includes the Potomac River labeled as "Patawomeck fluvia, " the James River labeled as the "Powhatan fluvia, " and the Rappahannock River. Several other rivers are depicted and named using Native American terms including the "Toppahanock" and the "Pamaunk." Jamestown is shown along the Powhatan River. The Atlantic Ocean just beyond the Chesapeake Bay is named "Mare Virginicum." Native American words are generally used for place names throughout the map.
A compass rose is shown in the lower left corner of the map. A Native American figure holding a large bow is shown standing along the right side of the map wearing animal skins. Above him, the key explaining the symbols in the map is decorated with a crown of feathers. Next to the explanatory key is a royal coat of arms topped by a royal crown. The scale and publication cartouche along the bottom edge is decorated with an elaborate border. In the upper left corner, a detailed illustration of Chief Powhatan's home is shown. Within the large structure, Chief Powhatan is shown with John Smith on his left and Pocahontas on his right. Beneath the three seated figures are a number of members of Powhatan's tribe around a fire with smoke rising. The illustration is meant to depict John Smith's account of his captivity by Powhatan and his subsequent rescue from beheading by Powhatan's daughter, Pocahontas.
c.a. 1:1, 120, 00.
|Contextual Notes||Throughout the seventeenth century, Flemish mapmakers became highly influential in the field of cartography and social conceptions of world geography. The Amsterdam-based Hondius family was no exception to this rule. Both Jodocus Hondius, Sr. (1563-1612) and his two sons, Jodocus Hondius, Jr. (1594-1629) and Hendrik Hondius (1597-1651) as well Senior's son-in-law, Jan Jansson (1588-1664) created and published maps that led to a highly successful world atlas based on the work of Gerardus Mercator (1512-1594). In 1604, Jodocus Hondius, Sr. purchased map plates made by Mercator. In 1606, Jodocus published a new edition of Mercator's "Atlas" with 36 of his own maps and called himself the work's publisher. Following his death, Hendrik continued publication of the "Atlas" using the original engraving plates from his father. He worked in collaboration with his brother-in-law, Jan Jansson, to continue publication of the work. Hendrik added to the atlas using map plates his brother, Jodocus Hondius, Jr., created following his brother's death in 1629. In 1638, Hendrik and Jan changed the title of the Atlas to "Atlas Novus" and began using their names on the publication of the maps. Following Henricus's death, Jansson continued publishing the atlas and adding to its content until there were 10 volumes plus an extra volume in the 1650s-1660s. Publication of this atlas finished in 1708 (Burden, 235-237; Pierluigi and Knirsch, 162-3; Wagner, 310).|
William Jans Zoon Blaeu (1571-1638) was another Dutch cartographer as well as an instrument maker, publisher and bookseller in Amsterdam. He and his sons were one of the Hondius family's main competitors. William's best works include a pair of globes (1599, 1602, 1603, 1616), "Maps Holland" (1604), "Spain" (1605), "World" (1605), "Continents" (1608), "Licht der Zeevaert (1608) and a land atlas published between 1630 and 1635. This land atlas was created from 37 plates by Hendrik Hondius that William purchased in 1629 following Hondius's death. When William died in 1638, his sons, Joan and Cornelius took up the family business, securing the publication of the "Atlas Novus" or "Theatrum Orbis Terrarum" which was first issued in two volumes in 1635 (Moreland and Bannister, 106-108; Tooley, 61). After Cornelius died in 1642, Joan continued to publish the "Atlas Novus" in 6 volumes in 1655. He then published the "Atlas Maior" in 1662 in 11 volumes and this work is still considered one of the greatest of its day. In 1672, a fire destroyed the Blaeu's printing house and the following year, Joan died. Frederick de Wit and Schenk and Valck acquired the Blaeu's plates (Moreland and Bannister, 106).
This particular map is based on John Smith's map of the Chesapeake Bay. John Smith (1580-1631) was an English explorer and a member of the first permanent English settlement in Virginia, Jamestown. He first arrived in Virginia in 1607. This group of early settlers was charged with trying to find a western passage to the Orient. As such, many of the men in the party ended up exploring the area, especially traveling along rivers to find their source. Smith, along with Captain Newport and small exploring parties, managed to explore the James River, the Chickahominy River, the Chesapeake Bay, the Potomac River and several other rivers including the Susquehanna, the Patuxant, the Rappahannock, the Piankatank, the Pamunkey, the Mattaponi and the Nansemond Rivers between the years 1607 and 1609. In 1612, Smith apparently created a map of Virginia to accompany a pamphlet he created to describe Virginia (Verner, 140-1). This map was engraved by William Hole and included a drawing of a large Native American figure holding a bow, copied from an engraving by De Bry or John White's "Weroan, Great Lord of Virginia" drawing (Ermen, 77; Verner 141). Verner remarks on the highly accurate nature of Smith's original map, noting the slight angle of the Chesapeake Bay and the appearance of islands in the Bay (143). According to Eduard Van Ermen, Smith's map remained the seminal map for describing Virginia and at least 9 versions or derivatives of it were produced by various cartographers in the early seventeenth century including Jodocus Hondius, Jr., who published his version of Smith's map in 1618. Jodocus Hondius Jr's plate was than bought by William (Willem) Janszoon Blaeu (1571-1638) in 1629. Blaeu changed the engraving to show that he now owned it and then published it in his "Atlantic Appendix" in 1630. Following William's death, Blaeu's son, Joan, published it in "Atlas Novus or Theatrum Orbis Terrarum" in 1640 (Verner, 163). The text describing Virginia or "La Verginie" is evident on the verso of this particular map and shows that this map was originally included in the French version of "Atlas Novus." Also evident in this map are the illustrations taken directly from Smith's original map. Slight differences exist between this particular print of the map and Smith's original map including the description printed next to the Native American figure standing on the right edge of the map. In Smith's original, the text reads, "The Sasquesahanouags are a Gyant like people and thus atired" while Blaeu's version of Smith's map reads, "Habitus foeminarum in Provincia Sasqueshanougs" which means, "The attire of the women in the land of the Susquehannas" (Ermen, 77).
The map was generally used for official purposes by authorities in charge of the new colony but it was also used to entice new settlers to come to Virginia and choose sites for settlement. In 1624, Smith included it in his "Generall Historie of Virginia, New-England and the Summer Isles" as a means of persuading English men and women to come to Virginia (Ermen, 77).
Source(s): Ermen, Eduard Van. "The United States in Old Maps and Prints. Wilmington, DE: Atomium Books, Inc., 1990.
Portinaro, Pierluigi and Franco Knirsch. "The Cartography of North America 1500-1800." New York: Facts on File, Inc., 1987.
Tooley, Ronald Vere. "Tooley's Dictionary of Mapmakers." Hertfordshire: Map Collector Publications Limited, 1979.
Verner, Coolie. "Smith's Virginia and Its Derivatives; A Carto-Bibliographical Study of the Diffusion of Geographical Knowledge." In "The Mapping of America." Ed. by Ronald Vere Tooley. London: Holland Press, 1985. 136-172.
Historical Illustrated Scene
United States, Northeast
|Subjects (LCSH)||Virginia-Maps-Early works to 1800.; Maryland-Maps-Early works to 1800.; ; Virginia-History---Colonial period, ca. 1600-1775-Maps. |
|Digital Collection||World and Regional Maps, 16th to the 19th centuries|
|Digital ID Number||MAP104 |
|Ordering Information||For information about digital reproductions, please email firstname.lastname@example.org. Please cite the Digital ID number. |
|Repository||University of Washington Libraries. Special Collections Division.|
|Repository Collection||Rare Map Collection. G3880 1630 N68 |
|Physical Description||36 x 46 cm. |
|Condition||Small tears along left edge. Large tear on right edge. Tears repaired with tape evident on verso. Water damage evident with tideline along bottom edge. Wrinkles in center of leaf. Call number written in pencil on verso. |
|Digital Reproduction Information||Scanned from original map at 600 dpi in TIFF format, resized and enhanced at 400 ppi using Adobe Photoshop, and imported as JPEG2000 using ContentDM's software JPEG2000 Extension. 2008. |
|Acquisition||The Janice Ruth Johnson Memorial Map collection donated by Professor W. Vance Johnson, Ellensburg, Washington, 1990. |
|References||Ermen, 20, map 8 & 77. Portinaro and Knirsch, 158-9, Pl. LXXIV. Verner, 163. |